Translators of the Hymns
- AYLWARD, VERY REV. JAMES AMBROSE, O.P.
(1813-1872) was the Dominican Prior at Woodchester,
England. His translations were edited by Mr. Orby
Shipley, in whose Annus Sanctus many of them appear.
“Father Aylward,” says Mr. Shipley, “was a cultured and
talented priest of varied powers and gifts, whose memory
is held dear by all who knew and were influenced by him.”
Hymns: 67, 68, 87.
- BAGSHAWE, MOST REV. EDWARD GILPIN (1829-
1915). Educated at St. Mary’s College Oscott, and at London
University. Bishop of Nottingham (1874), titular
Archbishop of Seleucia (1904). Translated all the hymns
of the Breviary and Missal in his Breviary Hymns and
Missal Sequences (Burns, Oates and Washbourne, London,
1900). His translations are the latest as well as the most
literal of all the translations of our Latin hymns. His sole
aim was “to keep to the sense of the original, neither adding
to this nor taking from it” (Preface). His translations
are too labored and prosy, but it is unfair to judge them
without considering the purpose of their pious author.
Hymns: 98, 146.
- BALL, REV. THOMAS ISAAC, LL.D. (1838-1916).
Dr. Ball contributed numerous translations of Latin hymns
to many hymnals, notable among which are the Appendix
to the Hymnal Noted, 1863, and The New Office Hymn Book,
1905. His translations are faithful, musical, and sustained,
Hymns: 81, 90, 135.
- BENEDICTINES OF STANBROOK, Worcester, England.
The translations ascribed to The Benedictines of
Stanbrook are taken from their classic little volume The
Day Hours of the Church, which contains the Breviary
Office in Latin and English for all the Hours except
Matins. (Burns, Oates and Washbourne, London, 1916.)
Hymns: 99, 100, 121, 122, 140.
- BLACKER, REV. MAXWELL JULIUS, MA. (1822-
1888). Mr. Blacker was educated at Merton College, Oxford.
His numerous translations from the Latin are in
The Hymner. Hymns: 10, 114, 115, 151.
- BLOUNT, WALTER KIRKHAM (d. 1717). Author of
the Office of Holy Week, Paris, 1670. Hymn: 51.
- BLEW, REV. WM. JOHN, MA. (1808-1894) was educated
at Wadham College, Oxford. “His translations are
terse, vigorous, musical, and of great merit. They have
been strangely overlooked by the compilers of recent hymnbooks”
(Dict. of Hymnol.). His translations appeared in
The Church Hymn and Tune Book, 1852. Hymns: 70, 113.
- BUTE, THE MARQUESS OF, MA. (1847-1900) was
educated at Christ Church, Oxford. Convert, 1869.
Translator of the Roman Breviary into English. The
translations of Latin hymns in his Roman Breviary in
English are the work of many scholars, both Catholic and
non-Catholic. It is not known which hymns are from the
pen of the Marquess. The following are from his Roman
Breviary: 84, 95, 141.
- CAMPBELL, ROBERT (1814-1868) was an advocate of
Skerrington, Scotland. Convert, 1852. Educated at the
Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. In 1850 many
of his translations appeared in the St. Andrew’s Hymnal.
Many others were left by him in MSS. and were edited by
Mr. Orby Shipley. From these Mr. Shipley published a
considerable number in his Annus Sanctus, 1884. His
translations are “smooth, musical, and sustained” (Dict.
of Hymnol.). Hymns: 59B, 60, 62.
- CASWALL, REV. EDWARD, MA. (1814-1878) was
educated at Brasenose College, Oxford. Convert, 1847.
After his conversion he joined Cardinal Newman at the
Oratory, Edgbaston. Father Caswall, despite the great
names of Newman, Faber, and others, is pre-eminently
“The Poet of the Oratory” (Father Matthew Russell,
S.J.). With Dr. Neale, Father Caswall shares the honor of
being the most felicitous of the translators of our Latin
Hymns. His translations appeared in his Lyra Catholica,
in 1848, the year following his reception into the Church.
“Caswall’s translations of Latin hymns from the Roman
Breviary and other sources have a wider circulation in
modern hymnals than those of any other translator, Dr.
Neale alone excepted. This is owing to his general faithfulness
to the originals, and to the purity of his rhythm”
(Dict. of Hymnol.). Many of Father Caswall’s translations
appear in the Annus Sanctus and are characterized by Mr.
Shipley as “vigorous, dogmatic hymns.” Father Caswall
translated the Roman Breviary Text. Despite his undoubted
ability as a translator, one can not but regret that
so many of his translations are in Common Meter instead
of Long Meter. Hymns: 22, 31, 32, 37, 42B, 43, 47, 54, 73,
74, 76, 78, 83, 85, 86, 88, 89, 93, 106, 107, 108, 110, 111, 112,
117, 119, 124, 125, 126, 127, 132, 134, 137, 147, 148, 152, 153,
162, 165, 167.
- CHADWICK, JOSEPH WILLIAM, MA. (1841-1882).
Educated at Queen’s College, Oxford. Vicar of Westgate
Common, Wakefield. His translations in this volume are
from The Hymner. Hymns: 13, 17, 19.
- CHAMBERS, JOHN DAVID, MA. (1805-1893) was
educated at Oriel College, Oxford, and was admitted to the
bar in 1831. His translations are found principally in his
Lauda Syon, which appeared in two parts in 1857 and
1866. “His translations of Latin hymns are close, clear,
and poetical; they have much strength and earnestness,
and the rhythm is easy and musical . . . Greater use,
however, might be made of these translations than has been
done. Their earnestness and dignity would raise the tone
of many collections” (Dict. of Hymnol.). Hymns: 13, 21,
- COPELAND, WM. JOHN, MA. (1804-1885). Mr.
Copeland was educated at Trinity College, Oxford. His
translations, mostly from the Roman Breviary Text, appeared
in his Hymns for the Week and Seasons (1848).
He was also the editor of Cardinal Newman’s Sermons.
- COURTHOPE, "WILLIAM JOHN, LL.D. (1842-1917),
was educated at Harrow, and New College, Oxford. Mr.
Courthope was professor of poetry at Oxford, 1895-1901.
Author of History of English Poetry, 4 vols., 1895-1903.
He contributed five beautiful translations of Latin hymns
to Church Hymns, 1903; through the kindness of The Macmillan
Company all of these spirited translations appear
in this volume. Hymns: 14, 16, 18, 27, 36.
- DEARMER, REV. PERCY, M.A., D.D. (b. 1867), was
educated at Christ Church, Oxford. He was one of the
compilers of the English Hymnal, 1906, to which he contributed
ten translations. He was appointed to the Chair
of Ecclesiastical Art, King’s College, London, 1919. Hymn:
- DONAHOE, JUDGE DANIEL JOSEPH, was born at
Brimfield, Mass., 1853, and was educated at Wesleyan
University. He is the author of several volumes of poetry,
original and translated. His translations from the Latin
comprise two volumes under the title Early Christian
Hymns, published by the Donahoe Publishing Co., Middletown,
Conn. These translations, 288 in all, include 115
hymns from the Breviary and Missal. They are uniformly
musical but quite free. Early Christian Hymns is the most
extensive work of its kind thus far undertaken in America,
or even in England since the days of Neale and Caswall.
Judge Donahoe is a frequent contributor to several magazines.
Hymns: 86, 123, 142, 143, 159.
- DORAN, Rev. John Wilberforce. For details see page
- DRYDEN, JOHN (1631-1701). Poet-Laureate, 1670.
Convert, 1685. Mr. Orby Shipley and Mr. W. T. Brooke
ascribe to John Dryden the bulk of the 120 translations of
Latin hymns in The Primer, or Office of the B. V. Mary in
English, 1706. Many of these translations are in the Annus
Sanctus, the Preface of which contains a discussion of the
question of Dryden’s authorship. Hymns: 50, 72.
- ELLERTON, REV. JOHN, M.A. (1826-1893). Mr. Ellerton
was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. He is
widely known as an hymnologist, editor, hymn-writer, and
translator. He was one of the editors of Church Hymns,
1871, published by the Society for Promoting Christian
Knowledge (S. P. C. K.). Hymn: 4.
- FABER, FREDERIC WILLIAM, D.D. (1814-1863).
Father Faber was educated at Balliol College, Oxford.
Convert, 1845. In 1849 he established in London the
“Oratorians,” or Priests of the Congregation of St. Philip
Neri, where he remained as superior until his death.
Father Faber is the author of many well known prose
works full of sweetness and unction, and a Book of Hymns,
150 in number, many of which have become very popular.
He is best known as a writer of original hymns, not as a
translator. Hymn: 133.
- GARESCHE, REV. EDWARD FRANCIS, S.J., MA.
(b. 1876). Father Garesché was educated at St. Louis
University, and at Washington University. Practiced law
1898-1900. Entered the Society of Jesus, 1900. Lawyer,
author, professor, poet, and formerly editor of The
Queen’s Work, St. Louis. Hymn: 80.
- HALL, RT. REV. MSGR. CANON LOUIS (1844-1911)
was educated at St. Edmund's, Old Hall, and was ordained
in 1868 for the Diocese of Southwark. In the division of
the diocese in 1882 he was made Canon of the diocese of
Portsmouth, and was several times Administrator of the
diocese. Msgr. Hall was a devout and cultured priest, and
a musician and composer of ability. Many of his hymns,
the editor has been informed, are still unpublished. Hymn:
- HENRY, RT. REV. MSGR. HUGH THOMAS, LITT.D.,
LL.D. (b. 1862), poet, lecturer, and hymnologist. Professor
of Homiletics in the Catholic University of America.
Msgr. Henry was educated at La Salle College, the University
of Pennsylvania, and at St. Charles Seminary,
Overbrook, Pa. For many years he was professor of English
and of Gregorian Chant at St. Charles, and rector of
the Roman Catholic High School in Philadelphia. He contributed
to the Catholic Encyclopedia some fifty scholarly
articles on our Latin hymns. He is widely and favorably
known as a hymn-writer and translator. His translations
appeared principally in his Eucharistica (Dolphin Press,
Philadelphia), and in the pages of the American Ecclesiastical
Review, and in other periodicals. He has also rendered
into English verse the Poems, Charades, and Inscriptions
of Pope Leo XIII (Dolphin Press). Hymns: 8, 41, 75, 96,
97, 131, 139, 144.
- HORT, FENTON JOHN ANTHONY, BA. (1828-1892),
was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. He held
several distinguished appointments at Cambridge University.
He translated a few Latin hymns. Hymn: 4.
- HOUSMAN, LAURENCE (b. 1867). Author and
artist. He contributed several translations to the English
Hymnal, 1906. His devotional poetry is found chiefly in
his Spikenard, 1898, and in his Bethlehem, 1902. Hymn:
- HUNTER-BLAIR, RT. REV. OSWALD (Sir David
Hunter-Blair, Baronet), O.S.B., MA. (b. 1853). Born at
Dunskey, Scotland. Educated at Eton and Magdalen Colleges,
Oxford. Convert, 1875. Entered the Benedictine
Order in 1878. Master of Hunter-Blair’s Hall, Oxford,
1899-1909. Elected Abbot of St. Benedict’s Abbey, Fort
Augustus, Scotland, 1913. Author, historian, and extensive
contributor to Catholic periodicals and to the Catholic
Encyclopedia. Hymns: 30, 141.
- HUSENBETH, VERY REV. F R E D E R I C K
CHARLES, D.D. (1796-1872). Educated at Oscott College.
Provost and Vicar-General of Northampton Diocese.
Author and editor of many volumes pertaining to doctrinal,
historical, and liturgical matters. Notable among these is
his Missal for the Laity. A number of his translations are
in Mr. Shipley’s Annus Sanctus. Hymn: 82.
- IRONS, WILLIAM JOSIAH, B.A. (1812-1883). Educated
at Queen’s College, Oxford. He is best known for his
translation of the Dies Iræ, which is more extensively used
than any other translation of that great hymn. Hymns:
- JULIAN, REV. JOHN, D.D. (1839-1913) was editor of
the Dictionary of Hymnology, a, monumental work which
sets forth the origin and history of Christian hymns of all
ages and nations. It contains much valuable information
on Latin hymns. Hymn: 20.
- LACEY, REV. THOMAS ALEXANDER, M.A.
(b. 1853). Educated at Balliol College, Oxford. He was one
of the committee that compiled The English Hymnal, to
which he contributed eleven translations from the Latin and
one from the Greek. His translations are of a high order.
- LEESON, JANE ELIZABETH (1807-1882). Of Miss
Leeson’s personal history nothing is known. She published
several books of hymns, especially for children. Her
widely used translation of the Victimæ Paschali first appeared
in Father Formby’s Catholic Hymns, 1851. Miss
Leeson, the editor has been informed, was a devout Catholic.
- LITTLEDALE, REV. RICHARD FREDERICK, B.A.,
LL.D. (1833-1890), was educated at Trinity College, Dublin,
and was an hymnologist of note. He contributed hymns to
many collections, and was one of the contributors to the
Marquess of Bute’s Roman Breviary in English. Hymn:
- MACCARTHY, DENIS FLORENCE (1817-1882) was
Professor of poetry in the Catholic University of Dublin.
By his incomparable version of Calderon, “the Spanish
Shakespeare,” he has won a permanent place in English
letters. He was an ardent patriot and a devout Catholic.
- McDOUGALL, ALAN G., was born in 1895, and was received
into the Church in 1919. He resides in London.
Mr. McDougall is the author of Pange Lingua&mdasha collection
of Breviary hymns of old use, with English metrical translations.
The translations are exceptionally good and they
rank among the most felicitous in the language. They are
“equal to Neale’s at his best” is the opinion of no less an
authority than Mr. James Britten. This is high praise but
it is not unmerited. The volume contains a scholarly thirty-page
introduction by Dr. Adrian Fortescue. Pange Lingua
is published by Burns, Oates and Washbourne, 22 Orchard
St., London, and it is a beautiful specimen of the bookmaker’s
art. Hymns: 1, 64, 105, 129, 136, 138, 155.
- NEALE, REV. JOHN MASON, D.D. (1818-1866) was
educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. Dr. Neale was
an eminent hymnologist and a most felicitous translator
of Greek and Latin hymns. His translations of Latin
hymns appeared in his Mediæval Hymns and Sequences,
1851, and in the Hymnal Noted, 1852 and 1854, in which 94
out of the 105 hymns therein are translated from the Latin
by Dr. Neale. Most modern hymnals contain some of
Neale’s translations; two, however, easily obtained, are
especially deserving of note; viz., the Rev. Gr. R. Woodward’s
Songs of Syon, and the Rev. G. H. Palmer’s The
Hymner. The latter book, so we are told in the Preface,
contains “translations of all, save two, of the Hymns from
the Sarum Breviary . . . Of the total number nearly
one-half are from the pen of the late Dr. J. M. Neale, of
whose vigorous and scholarly renderings the editor has
gladly availed himself.” Neale’s translations are from the
Original Text, not from the Roman Breviary Text.
Hymns: 3, 5, 6, 11, 23, 24, 26, 34B, 38, 39, 46, 49, 52, 53, 58,
58B, 66, 69, 71, 78, 134B, 150, 154, 158, 163, 168, 169, 170,
171, 172, 173.
- NEWMAN, JOHN HENRY CARDINAL (1801-1890)
was educated at Ealing, and at Trinity College, Oxford.
Convert, 1845. Founder and superior of the Birmingham
Oratory and School. Rector of the Catholic University in
Dublin, 1854-1858. Created Cardinal by Pope Leo XIII,
in 1879. His translations from the Roman Breviary, thirty-three
in all, are found in his Verses on Various Occasions.
His most popular translation is that of the Nunc Sancte
nobis Spiritus, hymn 2 of this volume. Hymns: 2, 15, 130.
- OAKELEY, VERY REV. FREDERICK, M.A. (1802-
1880) was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. He was a
prominent Tractarian and author. Convert, 1845. Canon
of the Cathedral of Westminster. He is widely known for
his fine translation of the Adeste Fideles. Hymn: 40.
- O’HAGAN, JOHN (1822-1890) was born at Newry,
Ireland, and was educated by the Jesuit Fathers in Dublin,
and at Trinity College. Justice O’Hagan was a devout
Catholic, a distinguished lawyer, and man of letters. He
was a member of the Supreme Court of Judicature in
Ireland. His fine translation of the Adoro Te devote was
a great favorite with the late Father Matthew Russell,
S. J., who included it in several of his charming little books
on the Blessed Sacrament. Hymn: 79.
- OXENHAM, HENRY NUTCOMBE (1829-1888) was
educated at Balliol College, Oxford. Convert, 1857. He is
the author of several volumes. Several of his translations
are in Mr. Shipley’s Annus Sanctus. Hymn: 120.
- PAUL, CHARLES KEGAN, MA. (1828-1902), was educated
at Eton College, Oxford. Convert, 1890. He was an
author, and head of the well-known publishing house of
Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Hymn: 102.
- PALMER, REV. GEORGE HERBERT, B.A, was educated
at Trinity College, Cambridge. Mr. Palmer is the
editor of The Antiphoner and Grail, and The Hymner,
which is exceptionally valuable both for the number and
quality of its translations from the Latin. All the translations
by Mr. Palmer, M. J. Blacker, J. W. Doran, and
J. W. Chadwick in this volume, are from The Hymner.
Hymns: 19, 69, 114, 115, 157.
- POTTER, REV. THOMAS JOSEPH (1828-1873).
Convert, 1847. Father Potter was for many years professor
of Belles Lettres and Sacred Eloquence at All Hallows
College, Dublin. He is the author of several volumes,
one of which, Sacred Eloquence, has been widely used as a
text-book in Catholic Seminaries. He translated the
Vespers hymns of the Breviary for the Catholic Psalmist.
Hymns: 29, 38, 63, 65, 91, 92, 104, 109, 118, 128.
- PRIMER. The Primer, or Office of the B. V. Mary in
English, was a book of devotion which was very popular
with our forefathers. Several editions appeared in the
17th and 18th centuries. The Appendix to Mr. Shipley’s
Annus Sanctus, contains many beautiful translations from
different editions of the Primer. Hymns: 33, 35, 50, 71.
- RILEY, ATHELSTAN, MA. (b. 1858), was educated at
Eton and at Pembroke College, Oxford. Mr. Riley is one
of the compilers of the English Hymnal, 1906, to which he
contributed seven translations from the Latin. The English
Hymnal (Oxford University Press, London) is one of
the finest of modern hymnals. It contains 162 translations
from the Latin, many of which are recent translations of
unusual beauty. Hymns: 42, 149.
- SCOTT, SIR WALTER (1771-1832), the eminent poet
and novelist, is the author of a fine condensed rendering of
the Dies Iræ. Hymn:87B.
- SHIPLEY, ORBY, MA. (1832-1916), was educated at
Jesus College, Cambridge. He was an Anglican clergyman
for twenty-two years. He entered the Church in 1878,
and at the time of his death he was one of the last of the
illustrious band of converts whose conversion is traced
directly to the Tractarian Movement. Mr. Shipley was
an hymnologist of great ability and his compilation, the
Annus Sanctus is repeatedly referred to in this volume.
He is also the editor of the Carmina Mariana, and other
collections now out of print. He edited the MSS. of Robert
Campbell, and of the Very Rev. Prior Aylward, O.P., and
included many of their finest translations in his Annus
Sanctus (Burns, Oates & Washbourne, London).
- WALLACE, REV. WILFRID, O.S.B., D.D. (d. 1896).
Father Wallace was educated at London University and in
Rome. He was ordained a secular priest and was known
to the world as John Wallace. In 1877 he entered the
Benedictine Order and was afterwards known by his religious
name Wilfrid. In his Hymns of the Church, 1874,
he translated all the hymns of the Breviary and Missal.
Several of his translations are in Mr. Shipley’s Annus
Sanctus. Strangely enough his best translations are from
the Passion Offices which are not included in the latest
edition of the Breviary. Hymns: 94, 103, 145.
- WALWORTH, REV. CLARENCE ALPHONSUS
(1820-1900) was an Episcopal clergyman who entered the
Catholic Church and became one of the founders of the
Paulist Congregation. His fine translation of the Te Deum
is in extensive use. Hymn: 8.
- WINGFIELD, WILLIAM FREDERICK, M.A. (1813-
1874), was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. Convert,
1845. Before his conversion he was an Anglican clergyman;
after his conversion, a barrister. Hymn: 87.
- WOODWARD, REV. GEORGE RATCLIFF, M.A.
(b. 1848), was educated at Harrow, and at Gonville and
Caius College, Cambridge. He is the editor of the excellent
hymnal, Songs of Syon, to which he contributed many
translations from the Latin, Greek, and German. His
translations from the Latin do not include any of the
Breviary hymns. He is also the author of the widely
known Cowley Carol Book. Hymn: 149B.
- YATTENDON HYMNAL, 1899. The Yattendon
Hymnal was edited by Mr. Robert Bridges, the Poet-
Laureate. It contains, in all, one hundred hymns, many of
them recent translations of a high order. Hymn: 12.
RELIGIOUS AFFILIATIONS OF TRANSLATORS
It is interesting to record here the religious affiliations
of the translators whose hymns find a place in this volume.
It will be observed from the biographies given above that
among the Catholic translators fully one-half are concerts.
Among those classed as Anglicans the writer believes that
all are of the High Church party.
- CATHOLICS: Aylward, Bagshawe, Bute, Campbell, Caswall,
Donahoe, Dryden, Faber, Garesché, Hall, Henry,
Hunter-Blair, Husenbeth, Leeson, McDougall, MacCarthy,
Newman, Oakeley, O’Hagan, Oxenham, Paul, Potter, Wallace,
Walworth, and Wingfield. The translations in the
Primers are all by Catholics.
- ANGLICANS: Ball, Blacker, Blew, Chadwick, Chambers,
Copeland, Courthope, Dearmer, Ellerton, Hort,
Housman, Irons, Julian, Lacey, Littledale, Neale, Palmer,
Riley, Woodward, and Doran.
- Scott was nominally a Presbyterian with a leaning
toward the Episcopal Church.
- DORAN, REV. JOHN WILBERFORCE (d. 1906), was,
at the time of its opening in 1863, curate of St. Alban’s,
long the mecca of High Church Anglicanism. In connection
with Spencer Nottingham he brought out The
Directory of Plainsong, the best Psalter of its day. Hymns
- TRIPEPI, LUIGI CARDINAL (1836-1906) held office
under two popes. Pius IX named him Hymnographer of
the Sacred Congregation of Rites, and Leo XIII appointed
him Secretary of the Congregation of Indulgences. Hymns:
Copyright Benziger Brothers, 1922. Online Edition Copyright David M. Cheney,