Catholic CornucopiadCheney

Part II: The Middle Ages

Chapter I: The Formation of the Breviary in Its Early Stages

From St. Gregory to Charlemagne, 591-814

Section 3.—Development of the Office and Formation of the Roman Breviary

The Roman Breviary: Its Sources and History

First-hand material for dealing with this question will apparently be wanting for some time to come. So long as MSS. of the seventh and eighth centuries are not forthcoming, we must rest content with the imperfect and often casual notices to be found in contemporary writers, and with the state in which we find the liturgy at a later date. We have to pass in review —I., the structure of the office and the arrangement of the psalms ; II., the lections from Holy Scripture, and the selection and arrangement of the other lections in the office ; III., the arrangement of festivals and the liturgical year.

I. The Structure of the Office and the Distribution of the Psalms.
(A) The Text of the Psalter. — Walafrid Strabol (†849) tells us that in his time there was no one text of the psalms uniformly adopted everywhere.

In Rome and Italy the recension of the Roman psalter was used, of which we have a relic in the version of the Invitatory (psalm 94) still in use. This was the psalter belonging to the Itala version, revised for the first time by St. Jerome, and introduced into liturgical use by St. Damasus towards the end of the fourth century (383). Its use spread quickly in Italy and Spain.

In Gaul, owing to the influence of Gregory of Tours in the sixth century, St. Jerome's second revision of the psalter, which he made in Palestine in 392, was generally adopted. This version is more independent of the Itala than the former, and for it St. Jerome consulted the Hexapla of Origen preserved at Cæsarea. This was the Gallican psalter adopted in Germany, England, and even, in the ninth century, in Italy itself, alongside the Roman psalter. This divergence of use continued until the Council of Trent, after which St. Pius V. established the universal use of the Gallican psalter. In St. Peter’s alone the ancient psalter still remains in use.

(B) The Canonical Hours:— From the seventh century onwards, ecclesiastical writers, papal decretals, and conciliar decrees recognize the eight parts of the office, which, as we have seen, took shape during the sixth century, and regard their recitation by priests and monks as enjoined by positive law. During this period, or at least at its commencement, Lauds and Vespers alone had a clearly defined structure and followed a definite arrangement. As far as we can see, St. Gregory arranged the little hours for Sunday alone, and their arrangement for week-days was left to the care of the bishops and metropolitans, or even to abbots. This was also the case in many instances with regard to Matins, for the number of psalms to be recited thereat was not definitely fixed. Amalarius2 says that in the ninth century in Rome if it was observed during Matins that the sun was about to rise, Vigils or Matins were at once brought to an end, even although the lections and psalms had not all been recited. This was because Lauds, the canonically established morning office, must begin at dawn. After the middle of the ninth century, we gather from contemporary documents that the office of Vigils was, as a whole, regularly constituted and well known.

As regards the little hours—Prime, Terce, Sext, None, and Compline—the freedom of the competent ecclesiastical authorities was as yet unconfined by canonical restrictions. Chrodegang († 766) was the first to follow the usages of the Benedictines of the Roman basilicas in prescribing for secular clergy the celebration at Prime of the Officium Capituli (i.e. the reunion in the chapter for reading the rule, or, on certain days, the writings and homilies of the Fathers). The rest of the chapter, i.e. all that follows the Confiteor in Prime as a preparation for the work of the day, seems to have been composed in the ninth century. A relic of the custom of reading a sermon, homily or section of the rule in the chapter, when the abbot or bishop was himself unable to address the assembly, exists in the short lection, which in its present form is usually the chapter from None. The short lection at the beginning of Compline is also a survival of the reading (collatio) prescribed by St. Benedict in his rule. Under Charlemagne and his successors, variations in the canonical hours completely disappeared.

(C) The Distribution of the Psalms over the Days of the Week :—The following division of the Psalterium per hebdomadam was adopted by Charlemagne for his chapel royal at Aix-la-Chapelle, and consequently by all the churches of the Frankish empire, which, according to the capitulary of 802, were bound to follow the model given by the palace chapel. From the work of Amalarius, we learn that this division, except in a few points connected with Prime, was that of the existing Roman Breviary, in its Psalterium dispositum per hebdomadam. This was the division followed at Rome also. Later on, after the simplification of the office for use in the papal chapel, it was established in Paris, from whence it was adopted into the Breviaries of the Dominicans and Carmelites. In the documents referred to, the psalms and canticles for Matins, Lauds, Vespers, and Compline are the same as those at the present day for the Sundays and ferias throughout the year. The “preces feriales” joined to the psalms have also remained practically unaltered throughout the centuries. With regard to Compline, the existing Roman form of this office with the Nunc Dimittis dates from the eighth century, the period when Chrodegang drew up his rules—unless one prefers to grant that St. Gregory the Great himself arranged it in its present form.3 Terce, Sext, and None were the same as at present, but, as regards Prime the Sunday office differed entirely from that for week-days. For the latter, the ancient rules allotted only three psalms : psalm 53, Deus in nomine tuo, with the two sections of psalm 118, verses 1-16 and 17-32. On Sunday nine psalms were recited, i.e. in addition to those recited at the present day, the five psalms which are said one on each day from Monday to Friday in place of the Confitemini—psalms 21-25. These psalms were perhaps said in St. Gregory’s time at Matins on Sunday, which would then have had twenty-four psalms. From the beginning of the eighth century the Quicumque vult, commonly called the Creed of St. Athanasius,4 seems to have been recited at Prime, for it appears in the Utrecht psalter as forming part of the canonical office. Towards the middle of the eighth century St. Boniface ordered it to be recited daily, or at least weekly, in Germany. On the other hand, many writers bear witness that it was recited at Prime on Sundays from the ninth century. It appears from this distribution of psalms that provision was made for festivals, and that on the most of them there was a double office. On the whole, this distribution of psalms agrees with that of Mabillon’s first Ordo Romanus, and with those published by Martene and Muratori.

The preces feriales at Lauds and Vespers are regarded as a continuation of the supplications and obsecrationes which St. Paul prescribed for the primitive church. They continued to be employed during the eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries as a conclusion to the office, especially at Lauds and Vespers. They comprise prayers for peace, for all classes of the faithful, for the safety of those in authority both spiritual and temporal, for blessings on the fruits of the earth, for the conversion of sinners, and for the deliverance of the souls in purgatory.

(D) Hymns: — We have seen already how St. Ambrose introduced the singing of hymns at Milan. St. Benedict has no other name for them in his rule than ambrosianum. His regulations show that they formed part of the monastic office. At what date did Rome admit hymns as an integral part of the office for the clergy? To judge from what Amalarius of Metz says, there was no sign of it at the beginning of the ninth century, but from the middle of the same century onwards hymns must have been introduced into the office used by the churches of the Frankish empire, and shortly afterwards in Rome. There is an interesting fact which goes to prove the use of hymns in the Roman office from the first half of the ninth century. When the celebration of All Saints was extended to the Frankish empire in 825, after having been observed in Rome for two centuries, and its celebration fixed for the 1st of November, the verse “Gentem auferte perfidam Credentium de finibus” was added to the hymn with reference to the Normans and Saracens who were laying waste both the north-west of Gaul and the south of Italy.

Walafrid Strabo agrees with Amalarius. Rabanus Maurus testifies that hymns were in general usage in the second part of the ninth century.5 It is difficult to say for certain what these hymns were, for they were not included along with the other liturgical texts in the psalters, antiphonaries, or responsories, but were united in a volume by themselves. Still, it may be regarded as certain that (a) at Matins and Lauds on the Sundays in winter, Primo dierum omnium and Æterne rerum conditor were sung as at the present day, and in summer, Nocte surgentes and Ecce jam noctis, both attributed to St. Gregory the Great; (b) the hymns at Vespers and Compline varied with the season. In winter O lux beata Trinitas, and in summer Deus creator omnium, were sung at Vespers, while at Compline the hymn in winter was Christe qui lux est et dies, and the hymn in summer and on festivals was Te lucis ante terminum; (c) on Sundays and during the week the hymns at Prime, Terce, Sext, and None were the same as at present, but a change was made during Lent; (d) during Lent, the hymn at Vespers was Audi benigne conditor, at Matins and Lauds on ferias the prescribed hymns bore upon fasting, Ex more docti mystic and Jam Christe, sol justiticæ. In Passiontide, the hymns on the Cross were the same as now; so, too, were the hymns in Advent. A great number of special hymns existed for saints’ days which are no longer in use, but the hymns for Eastertide and Pentecost, and those for Matins, Vespers, and Lauds of ferias throughout the year, were those which are still in use, save that they have been touched up in some points in the seventeenth century.

It is impossible to be certain what were the chapters and short lections belonging to the little hours. To judge from St. Benedict’s rule, they were taken from St. Paul’s epistles and the prophets. The Apocalypse was employed for Lauds. The passages were recited from memory.6

Nothing prevents us from supposing that on festivals of our Lord and the saints, and on privileged Sundays, the chapters at Lauds, Vespers, Terce, Sext, and None were taken from the epistle of the Mass. On ferias throughout the year and on certain Sundays the chapters were the same as at present. For the greater part of the year the Tu antem in nobis es Domine was said at Compline, as it is at present.

(E) Introductory and Final Prayers:—The office opened with the verse Deus in adjutorium and the Gloria Patri. According to Chrodegang or his commentators, the entire psalm 69, which begins with the words Deus in adjutorium, was to be recited once at least at Matins, not in choir, but on the way to the church. On rising, the verse, Domine, labia mea aperies was to be said. At the other hours, the directions of St. Benedict and St. Gregory the Great were followed, according to which only the first verse of psalm 69 and the Gloria Patri were recited.

All the hours concluded with the Kyrie eleison, the preces or capitella, Pater Noster, and a prayer; the suffrages followed and the Benedicamus Domino.

Often there was added the office of All Saints, the office for the dead, and even from the tenth and eleventh centuries, the little office of our Lady. Perhaps there were added as well the seven penitential psalms, the fifteen gradual psalms, or at least a series of psalms or prayers for special necessities.

The text of the antiphons of our Lady was already in existence, at least in part, as for example the Ave Regina and the Regina Cœli. The Alma Redemptoris and the Salve Regina date from the eleventh century, and have been attributed to a monk of Reichenau, Herman Contractus (†1054). However, these antiphons are not mentioned in the liturgical books belonging to the eighth and ninth centuries which have come down to us. The Regina Cœli alone was sung in Rome at Easter as an antiphon at Vespers, and not at the end of the office. The present custom seems to date only from the thirteenth century. At that period it was in use in the chapel of St. Louis, but only at Compline. In the sixteenth century the antiphons of our Lady were employed to replace the little office at all the hours.

The direction to say the Pater and Credo before Matins and Prime, and after Compline, appears for the first time in St. Benedict of Aniane († 821). Still there is ground for supposing that the Credo formed part of the Roman office from the eighth century onwards, either at Matins, Prime, or Compline, since it appears in all psalters of the eighth century or beginning of the ninth.

II. The Lections from the Holy Scripture and from other Sources.
1. The First Four Centuries:—The reading of the Sacred Scriptures in conjunction with the psalmody in the divine office owes its origin to Jewish tradition. Our Lord consecrated this custom by taking part in it when present at the worship of the synagogue (St. Luke iv. 16-30). The apostles adopted the custom, and the epistles of St. Paul (especially Col. iv. 16 and 1 Thess. v. 27) show that the writings of the New Testament were read in the church at an early date.

During the first three centuries the rule was to begin with passages taken from the Pentateuch, to which were added passages from the prophets and from the gospels. The Pentateuch and the prophets were sometimes replaced by a passage from the apostolic epistles. A little later, the following order was adopted: a passage from the Old Testament, another from the Acts of the Apostles and the epistles of St. Paul, and a third from the gospels. The same arrangement held good for both the Mass and the canonical hours. In the fourth century this was the case especially at Matins on week-days: two lections were read at these hours, one from the Old and one from the New Testament; on Saturdays and Sundays both lections were from the New Testament, from the epistles of St. Paul and the gospels respectively.7 We have no clear evidence to show us what was the Roman practice before St. Gregory the Great as regards the lections from Scripture. St. Benedict’s rule († 543) is the earliest information of a certain and detailed nature we possess concerning the lections at the various canonical hours, at least in Italy. “Codices legantur in vigiliis tam Veteris Testamenti quam Novi divinæ auctoritatis; sed et expositiones earum quæ a nominatissimis et orthodoxis et catholicis Patribus factæ sunt” (ch. ix.). We must not, then, conclude that there were no prescribed lections from Scripture before St. Gregory’s time, especially in the Roman office.

The Acts of the Martyrs were read on their festivals, but the celebration of these anniversaries remained restricted to the Locus depositionis or Locus tituli for the first eight centuries.8

St. Gregory the Great (Epp., xii. c. 24; Patr. Lat., lxxvii. 1234) testifies that in his day the works of the Fathers were read at Matins — homiliœ commentarii, sermones. An Ordo Romanus dating from his pontificate or that of his predecessor shows that the lections from Holy Scripture formed an integral part of the daily pensum of prayer.

2. The custom of giving a blessing before the lections was already in existence in the fourth century. The ruler of the choir, who gave it at the beginning, gave also the signal for the termination of the lesson by the words Tu autem (scil. desine or cessa), to which the reader responded Domine, miserere nobis, while the whole choir answered Deo gratias. In the palace at Aix-la-Chapelle it was by knocking, and not by the words Tu autem that the Emperor Charlemagne gave the signal for the conclusion of the lections, while the lector recited himself Tu autem, Domine, miserere nobis. The Rituale Ecclesiæ Dunelmensis, containing fragments of the Roman liturgy from the end of the seventh to the ninth and tenth centuries, includes forms of blessing for the different festivals, sometimes three, sometimes nine. In the latter case, each lesson was provided with its own form of blessing, which corresponded with the mystery commemorated by the festival. The absolutions, Exaudi Domine and A vinculis peccatorum, did not appear until the succeeding period.

3. What was the subject-matter of the lections? As we have just said, the Holy Scriptures, the Acts of the Martyrs, and the writings of the Fathers were read at the choir office from the earliest times. According to Cassian, the monks of the fourth and fifth centuries read at Matins and Vespers on week-days two lections of greater length, one from the Old the other from the New Testament. On Saturdays, Sundays, and during the paschal season both were taken from the New Testament. Occasionally, and specially at the Sunday Vigils, there were three lections. Among the monks of the West, in the sixth and seventh centuries, chiefly in Gaul and at Lerins, there were frequently two lections at all the hours, one from the apostle and one from the gospel. It may be concluded that from the end of the fourth century the lections in the office followed the order of the lections in the Mass. Cassian’s evidence agrees with what we find in St. John Chrysostom and St. Augustine touching the reason why the Acts of the Apostles and other New Testament books were chosen for the paschal season.9

The information with regard to the practice of the Roman church during the fifth and sixth centuries, in what concerns the public reading in church of the Holy Scriptures, the Acts of the Martyrs, and the writings of the Fathers, is derived from the regulations attributed to Pope Gelasius. If a letter, often wrongly interpreted, of Paul the Deacon to Charlemagne, is to be believed, the order of lections followed in the eighth century, especially the choice of lections from Scripture in the canonical office, is the work of St. Gregory the Great or Honorius I. († 638). St. Gregory the Great based his reform upon St. Benedict’s rule, of which he had a very high opinion, while St. Benedict, in his turn, seems to have followed the arrangement of the Scriptural lections in the Mass such as it existed in the fifth and sixth centuries. He ordered a short lection from Scripture should be repeated by heart at the Little Hours as well as at Lauds and Vespers. At Matins on ordinary days, except in summer, three lections were to be read from the Old Testament; on Sundays and festivals the lections of the first nocturn were to be taken from the Old Testament, of the third from the New Testament (Acts, Epistles, or Apocalypse), and the gospels after the Te Deum. The lections for the second nocturne were taken from commentaries on Holy Scripture by the chief orthodox Fathers. In the office of three lections in ordinary days in winter, the Old Testament was read for the first lection, and a patristic commentary for the second and third. St. Gregory the Great, in his homilies, followed the order of the selections from the gospels already existing in his time, but for the divine office he took as his basis the system of lections drawn up by St. Benedict. This system remained intact until the Carolingian period, as we can see from many Ordines Romani belonging to the seventh, eighth, and ninth centuries. One small deviation from St. Benedict’s rule with regard to the third nocturn was made by St. Gregory or one of his successors.

The influence of St. Benedict’s rule in the Roman office is easily explained by the fact that from the seventh to the ninth century Benedictine monks celebrated the divine office in almost all the basilicas of Rome.

From the comparison of the Ordines Romani and the existing distribution of the books of Holy Scripture, we obtain the following result: From Christmas to Septuagesima the lections were taken from the Old Testament, while the existing Roman Breviary appoints lections from St. Paul’s epistles, which were formerly assigned to the third nocturn on Sundays; from Easter to autumn, the order was the same as at present, except that the Acts of the Apostles was begun on Easter day itself, while at present we begin the Acts only on Quasimodo Monday; from the beginning of autumn (November), when we read the Prophet Ezechiel and the other Prophets in the order in which they are given in the Bible, the lections were taken from the historical books—Job, Tobias, Judith, Esther, and the Machabees— Isaias being read from the 1st December to the Vigil of Christmas. The five books of Moses, along with Josue, Judges, and Ruth, were begun on the fifteenth or twelfth day before Quadragesima, i.e. on either Septuagesima or Sexagesima Sunday. In early times the new year commenced on the 1st March, and thus the lections from the earlier books of the Bible coincided with the beginning of the year. The consecutive reading of the Bible was broken in upon by Passiontide and Easter, when special lections were prescribed—the Prophets and Job for Passiontide, the New Testament (omnia nova) for Easter. The passage forming the gospel for the day was read entire at Matins in the Roman office, and not, as at the present day, merely the first few lines, with the formula “et reliqua” a custom which appears to have lasted up to the time of St. Gregory VII.

On saints’ days, such as could be celebrated on Sundays (i.e. festivals with nine lections, duplicia), or such as, falling in the week, were regarded as solemn days, all the lections were taken from the life or passion of the saint. The same was also frequently done on days when there were only three lections (Festa simplicia). Should the gesta, vitæ, or passions not be sufficient to make nine lections, they were employed at the third nocturn only, lections from Scripture or the Fathers being read at first and second nocturns. Saints’ days which were not solemnly celebrated could not, as a rule, entirely replace the Sunday office, three or six lections from the latter being in these cases retained.

As regards the substance and length, such lections as were not drawn from the Scriptures then in course of reading were chosen by the abbot or bishop. Just as the psalter was to be gone through once a week, the Bible was to be read through in the course of a year, along with the commentaries of the principal Fathers. Such was the underlying principle, and its application was not difficult, taking the length of the lections into consideration—fifteen or twenty chapters being read during the winter nights. Thus, in the Ordo Cluniacensis of St. Ulrich, the whole of Isaias was read in ten nights, and the Epistle to the Romans in three Matins.10

III. Festivals and the Liturgical Year.
The distinction between the Proprium de Tempore and the Proprium Sanctorum does not appear before the twelfth or thirteenth centuries. During the period now under consideration the Proprium de Tempore included the whole liturgical year, even the fixed festivals (immobilia) of our Lady and the saints. These are to be found after the Sundays and principal feasts, according to needs and requirements.

Roman service-books from the eighth to the tenth centuries begin, as a rule, with the Vigils of the Nativity (Nono kalendas januarii), and contain at the end of the liturgical year five or six Sundays ante Natale, the Ember days, and St. Andrew’s day as the concluding festival of the year. Upon this follows the office for the consecration of a church, the commons of Apostles, Martyrs, Confessors, Virgins (one or more). In the Antiphonary of St. Gregory (MS. of St. Gall, tenth century), the liturgical year begins with the Mass for the first Sunday in Advent.

The Sundays were reckoned “after the Nativity,” “after the Epiphany”; perhaps also, but very rarely, “post Cathedram Petri” in February. Then came Septuagesima—the seventieth day before the Sunday in albis—and the Octave of Easter. Next followed the Sundays after Easter, the Ascension, Pentecost, after the feast of the Holy Apostles, after the feasts of St. Lawrence, St. Michael, SS. Cornelius and Cyprian. Palm Sunday was called Dominica Indidgentiæ.

One small difference deserves notice. While St. Gregory, as is generally granted, gives four Sundays in Advent with proper Mass and office, the Gallican and Gallo-Roman books begin with four or five Sundays in Advent. The explanation of this may be that in course of time supplemental pages were added to the volumes, upon which new additions were written without regard to the original order.

There was no universal uniformity with regard to the celebration of the two first Embertides. St. Gregory VII. finally laid down the law on this point, but before his time the spring Ember days were celebrated in some churches in March (Jejunium primi mensis), and those in summer after the middle of June (Jejunium mensis quarti). The year formerly began on the first of March, and February was accordingly the concluding month of the year. Thus each quarter was sanctified at its beginning by the Embertides of the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth months. Ember Saturdays were called “sabbatum duodecim lectionium,” because the Mass of the day was sung in the evening or at night after None.

The mysteries of the Holy Trinity and of the Transfiguration began during this period to be distinguished by special Masses and offices. With regard to the former there was a great disagreement, which lasted from the eighth to the fourteenth century, concerning the office for the Sunday after Pentecost: Was it to be kept as the Octave of Pentecost, or as the festival of the Holy Trinity, or as a simple Sunday? About 920, Stephen, Bishop of Liège, introduced a festival and office into his diocese which spread to Southern Germany, and was even adopted at Cluny, although Pope Alexander II. († 1073) declared that Rome did not accept them.

An office for the Transfiguration appears in the Mozarabic liturgy; a codex in the National Library in Paris belonging to the twelfth century contains an office for this festival, probably composed by Peter the Venerable. The festival of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross dates from the fourth century, that of the Invention on the 3rd May, from the eighth or ninth.

It is impossible in a short work such as this to give details concerning the feasts of the martyrs and saints. We can only speak of the four chief festivals of our Lady which were established in the course of this period.

(A) The Purification is mentioned for the first time in the diary of Etheria (Sylvia).11 It was celebrated at Jerusalem by a special office, not on the 2nd but on the 15th February, forty days after Epiphany, the Christmas of the Easterns (6th January). It is usually thought that the feast was introduced into the West in the fifth century by Pope Gelasius, who coupled with it and distinguished it by a procession of lights, with the intention of supplanting the heathen festival of the Lupercalia. The antiphons at Vespers and Lauds point to the Greek origin of the feast, and to the period of the Council of Ephesus. The earliest indication of its observance in Rome is given by the Liber Pontificalis in the Life of Pope Sergius I. (687-701).

(B) The origin of the festival of the Annunciation is rather obscure. A Council of Toledo in 656 speaks of the difficulty of celebrating it on the 25th March on account of Lent, and so transfers it to the 18th December (Expectatio Partus). The festival is certainly more ancient than this. We know that St. Helena (in the fourth century), having discovered at Nazareth the house wherein the mystery of the Incarnation was accomplished, erected a basilica on the site. This very probably give rise to a festival, which other churches subsequently adopted. There are traces in the liturgy which seem to point to a commemoration at least of the Annunciation at a date not far removed from the fourth century. The Ravenna roll, belonging to the first half of the fifth century, contains ten prayers which plainly have to do with this mystery. With regard to the day on which the festival is kept, the opinion at present most widely held regards the 25th March as the anniversary of Christ’s death and conception. A difficulty was caused by Lent, during which no festivals were celebrated in primitive times; but as the liturgical significance of Lent became overlaid, the Annunication came everywhere to be observed on the 25th March. The early Middle Ages, more strict as to these matters, transferred the festival to Advent. In fact, the Expectation of our Lady on the 18th December presents in its office some resemblances to the mystery of the Annunciation.

(C) The feast of the Assumption has been known by different names — Dormitio, Pausatio, Transitus B.M. That of the Assumption has prevailed over the others because it more exactly explains the object of the mystery, i.e. the death of our Lady, her resurrection, and her triumphal entry into heaven in body and soul. The existence of the account of this fact does not directly prove the existence of the feast. It seems probable that the feast had its origin at the tomb of our Lady in Gethsemani, as a consequence of the pilgrimages made to this spot by the faithful. The fact that at the end of the sixth century the Assumption was solemnly celebrated in East and West warrants us in concluding that its institution dates back to the end of the fifth century. The earliest date seems to have been the 18th January, at least in the West. The Emperor Maurice (582-602) altered it to the 15th August, on which date it is still celebrated. Some uncertainty was shown with regard to the feast, but about 847 Pope Leo IV. appointed an Octave, and probably also a Vigil, for it.12

(D) The Nativity of our Lady.—“This feast,” says Mgr. Duchesne (Origines du Culte chrétien, p. 261), along with the three preceding, is marked in the Gelasian Sacramentary, which shows that from the seventh century it was also celebrated in Rome. A document contemporary with the Trullan Council (692) mentions it on the 8th September. The feast seems to have been of Byzantine origin. As regards the festival of our Lady’s Presentation in the Temple, it seems certain that it originated at Jerusalem at the close of the seventh century. This, at least, is the opinion of Fr. Vailhé in the Échos d’Orient, 1902.

1 Migne, Patr. Lat., cxiv. 952.
2 De Ordine Antiphonarii, cap. iv. Migne, Patr. Lat., cv. 1252.
3 Amalarius, De Ordine Antiphonarii, ch. 7. Migne, Patr. Lat., cv. 1259.
4 Dom Morin has shown in the Science Catholique (15th July 1891) that this creed dates from the end of the fifth century. See also the Dictionnaire d’Archéologie chrétienne et de Liturgie, Vacant-Mangenot, i. 2178.
5 Migne, Patr. Lat., clx. 159, cxiv. 956, cvii, 362.
6 Regula S. Benedicti, xii. And xiii.
7 See Cassian, Institut. Cœnob. Patr. Lat., xlix. 83 and 90.
8 Batiffol, in his Histoire du Bréviare romain, mentions an Ordo Romanus published by Tommasi.
9 St. John Chrysos., Patr. Gr., li. 105. St. Aug., Patr. Lat., xxxv. 3019.
10 Migne, Patr. Lat., cxlix. 644.
11 Dom Cabrol, Étude sur la Peregrinatio S. Sylviæ, pp. 77, 78.
12 For the two last festivals, see the Dictionnaire d’Archéologie chrétienne et de Liturgie, under Annonciation and Assomption.